Rivista Italiana di Medicina Legale e del Diritto in campo sanitario

Rivista: Rivista Italiana di Medicina Legale (e del Diritto in campo sanitario)
Anno: 2019
Fascicolo: n. 3
Editore: Giuffrè Francis Lefebvre
ISSN: 1124-3376
Autori: Fanizza Antonella Rita, Misceo Federica, Colletta Libera Maria, Bellomo Antonello, Ferrannini Luigi, Catanesi Roberto, Grattagliano Ignazio
Titolo: ANALISI DEL RISCHIO SUICIDARIO E AUTOLESIVO IN CARCERE - UNA REVISIONE SISTEMATICA
Pagine: pp. 997-996
Keywords: suicidio, atti autolesivi, carcere, prevalenza, revisione sistematica

Il punto di partenza del nostro lavoro di revisione è un dato eloquente: globalmente la popolazione detenuta si uccide o commette atti autolesivi in maggior misura rispetto alla popolazione libera.

Il suicidio e la commissione di atti autolesivi risultano la forma più comune di aggressività auto-inferta all’interno delle strutture detentive. Parlare di suicidio o di atti autolesivi è un compito molto arduo e delicato, alla luce della polifattorialità del fenomeno. Talvolta, tali gesti sono visti e impiegati come l’unico strumento in grado di comunicare il proprio disagio, i propri bisogni e la necessità di essere ascoltati.

L’analisi della popolazione generale permette di capire quanto diffuso sia il fenomeno dell’aggressività auto-inferta nelle strutture detentive, con particolare attenzione alla situazione in Italia.

L’obiettivo degli autori è quello di effettuare una sintesi analitica dei lavori nazionali e internazionali svolti sia sulla popolazione generale sia sulla popolazione detenuta per tentare di effettuare una comparazione del fenomeno auto-aggressivo dentro e fuori le mura del carcere.

ANALISI DEL RISCHIO SUICIDARIO E AUTOLESIVO IN CARCERE - UNA REVISIONE SISTEMATICA


1) Comitato Bioetico Nazionale. (2013). La salute dentro le mura, http://bioetica.governo.it/it/documenti/pareri-e-risposte/la-salute-dentro-le-mura/.
2) World Health Organization (2007). La prevenzione del suicidio nelle carceri, WHO Press, World Health Organization, Geneva.
3) Pini, E., Riboldi, I., Cova, F., Capuzzi, E., Provenzi, M., Sergio, M. R., Clerici, M. (2015). Risk assessment and prevention of self-harm, hetero-aggressiveness and suicide in prison: reports from a Depertment of Mental Health. Rivista Sperimentale di Freniatria, 147-161.
4) Manconi, L. (2002). Suicidi e atti di autolesionismo: i dati di una ricerca in Politica del diritto, XXXIII, 2, giugno 2002.
5) Ponti, G., Merzagorza Betsos, I. (2008). Compendio di criminologia, Milano: Raffaello Cortina Editori, pp 451-457.
6) Fazel, S, Benning, R, Danesh, J. (2005). Suicides in male prisoners in England and Wales, 1978–2003. Lancet 2005; 366 pp. 1301-1302.
7) Fazel, S, Benning, R. (2009). Suicides in female prisoners in England and Wales, 1978–2004. Br J Psychiatry, vol. 194, pp. 183-184.
8) Fazel, S, Grann, M, Kling, B, et al. (2011). Prison suicide in 12 countries: an ecological study of 861 suicides during 2003–2007. Soc Psychiatry Psychiatr Epidemiol, 46 pp. 191-195.
9) Fazel, S., Ramesh, T., Hawton, K. (2017). Suicide in prisons: an international study of prevalence and contributory factors, Lancet Psychiatry 4: 946-52.
10) Hawton, K., Linsell, L., Adeniji, T., Sariaslan, A., and Fazel, S. (2014). Self-harm in prisons in England and Wales: an epidemiological study of prevalence, risk factors, clustering, and subsequent suicide. The Lancet, 383(9923), 1147-1154.
11) Loc. cit. sub. 4.
12) Rabe, K. (2012). Prison structure, inmate mortality and suicide risk in Europe. Int J Law Psychiatry 2012; 35, pp. 222-230.
13) World Health Organization (2018). Monitoring health for the SDGs. Geneva: WHO. https://apps.who.int/iris/bitstream/handle/10665/272596/9789241565585-eng.pdf?ua=1.
14) Guarmit, B., Brousse, P., Lucarelli, A., Donutil, G., Cropet, C., Mosnier, E., ... Nacher, M. (2018). Descriptive epidemiology of suicide attempts and suicide in the remote villages of French Guiana. Soc Psychiatry Psychiatr Epidemiol.
15) Turecki, G., Brent, D.A. (2016). Suicide and suicidal behaviour, Lancet 387(10024): 1227-1239.
16) Icick, R., Vorspan, F., Karsinti, E., Ksouda, K., Lépine, J.-P., Brousse, G., Mouly, S., Belliver, F., Bloch, V. (2018). Gender-specific study of recurrent suicide attempts in outpatients with multiple substance use disorders. J Affect Disord, 241, 546-553.
17) American Psychiatric Association (2013) Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 5th Edition. Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Association.
18) Loc. cit. sub. 17.
19) Kiekens, G., Bruffaerts, R., Nock, M.K., Van de Ven, M., Witteman, C., Mortier, P., Demyttenaere, K., Claes, L. (2015) Non-suicidal self-injury among Dutch and Belgian adolescents: Personality, stress and coping. European Psychiatry 30(6):743-749.
20) Loc. Cit. sub. 10 hawton.
21) Gauthier, S., Reisch, T., Bartsch, C. (2015). Swiss prison suicides between 2000 and 2010: Can we develop new prevention strategies based on detailed knowledge of suicide methods? Crisis. 36, pp. 110-116.
22) Pluck, G. and Brooker, C. (2014), Epidemiological survey of suicide ideation and acts and other deliberate self‐harm among offenders in the community under supervision of the Probation Service in England and Wales, CBMH, 24, 358- 364.
23) Loughran M., Seewoonarain K. (2005) Characteristics of need and risk among women prisoners referred to inreach mental health services. The British Journal of Forensic Practice, 7, 12-21.
24) Mannion, A. (2009) Self-harm in a dangerous and severely personality disordered population. Journal of Forensic Psychiatry and Psychology, 20, 322-331.
25) Vollm, B. A., & Dolan, M. C. (2009). Self-harm among UK female prisoners: A cross-sectional study. J Forens Psychiatry Psychol, 741-751.
26) Loc. cit. sub. 10.
27) Loc. cit. sub. 13.
28) De Leo, D., Burgis, S., Bertolote, J, Kerkhof, A.D.M., and Bille-Brahe, U. (2004). Definitions of suicidal behavior, in De Leo, D., Bille-Brahe, U., Kerkhof, A.D.M, and Schmidtke, A. (ed.) Suicidal Behavior: Theories and research findings, pp. 17-39.
29) Gabbard, G.O. (2015). Psichiatria Psicodinamica, Milano, Raffaello Cortina Editore.
30) Klonsky, E.D., May, A.M. (2014). Differentiating Suicide Attempters from Suicide Ideators: A Critical Frontier for Suicidology Research, Suicide Life Threat Behav 44, 1, February 2014.
31) Silverman, M. M. (2009). In This Issue. Suicide Life Threat Behav, 39(1), iii–v.
32) Loc. cit. sub. 13.
33) ISTAT (2017) Giornata mondiale per la prevenzione del suicidio, https://www.istat.it/it/archivio/203353.
34) Grattagliano, I., Ostuni, A., Marrone, M., Cassano, A., Tafuri, S., Bianchi, F., Misceo, F., Miniello, M., & Catanesi, R. (2019). The wish ‘not to be’ Survey of suicide cases arriving at the Prosecutor’s Office of the Court in Bari in the years 2014-2016. Clin Ter. 1(170), e16 - e26.
35) Loc. cit. sub. 15.
36) Loc. cit. sub. 15.
37) Nock, M., Borges, G., Bromet, E.J., Cha, C.B., Kessler, R.C., Lee, S. (2008). Suicide and Suicidal Behavior, Epidemiologic Reviews, 30(1), pp. 133-154.
38) Loc. cit. sub. 34.
39) Balestrieri, M., Pompili, M. (2017). Il suicidio. in Siracusano A. (ed.) Manuale di Psichiatria, Roma: Il Pensiero Scientifico, pp. 711-723.
40) Pompili, M., Vichi, M., Masocco, M., Vanacore, N., Innamorati, M., Serafini, G., ... Tatarelli, R. (2010). Il suicidio in Italia. Aspetti epidemiologici e socio-demografici.
41) Loc. cit. sub. 13.
42) Klonsky, E.D., May, A.M., Saffer B.Y. (2016). Suicide, Suicide Attempts, and Suicidal Ideation, Annu. Rev. Clin. Psychol. 2016.
43) Bernal, M., Haro, J.M., Bernert, S., Brugha, T., de Graaf, R., Bruffaerts, R., Lépine, J.P., de Girolamo, G., Vilagut, G., Gasquet, I., Torres, J.V., Kovess, V., Heider, D., Neeleman, J., Kessler, R., Alonso, J., The ESEMED/MHEDEA Investigators (2007). Risk factors for suicidality in Europe: Results from the ESEMED study. J Affect Disord, 101(1-3), 27-34.
44) Loc. Cit. sub. 16.
45) Loc. cit. sub. 16.
46) Gratz, K.L. & Tull, M.T. Cogn Ther Res (2010) The Relationship Between Emotion Dysregulation and Deliberate Self-Harm Among Inpatients with Substance Use Disorders. Cognitive Therapy and Research. 34(6):544-553.
47) Asarnow, J. R., Porta, G., Spirito, A., Emslie, G., Clarke, G., Wagner, K. D., and Brent, D. A. (2011). Suicide Attempts and Nonsuicidal Self-Injury in the Treatment of Resistant Depression in Adolescents: Findings from the TORDIA Study. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry, 10(3), 380-388.
48) Hauser, M., Galling, B., Correll, C.U. (2013). Suicidal ideation and suicide attempts in children and adolescents with bipolar disorder: a systematic review of prevalence and incidence rates, correlates, and targeted interventions. Bipolar Disord. 15(5):507-23.
49) Tull, M.T., Weiss, N.H., McDermott, M.J. (2010) Non‐Suicidal Self‐Injury and Eating Pathology in High School Students. American Journal of Orthopsychiatry. 79(1):83-92.
50) Claes, L., Luyckx, K., Bijttebier, P., Turner, B., Ghandi, A., Smets, J., Norre, J., Van Assche, L., Verheyen, E., Goris, Y., Hoksbergen, I., Schoevaerts, K. (2014). Non-Suicidal Self-Injury in Patients with Eating Disorder: Associations with Identity Formation Above and Beyond Anxiety and Depression. European Eating Disorders Review, 23(2), 119-125.
51) Kleindienst, N., Bohus, M., Ludäscher, P., Limberger, M. F., Kuenkele, K., Ebner-Priemer, U. W., Chapman A.L., Reicherzer. M., Stieglitz, R., Schmahl, C. (2008). Motives for Nonsuicidal Self-Injury Among Women with Borderline Personality Disorder. The Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, 196(3):230-236.
52) Loc. cit. sub. 40 nock 2008.
53) Loc. Cit. sub. 8.
54) Loc. Cit. sub. 6.
55) Loc. Cit. sub. 7.
56) Loc. cit. sub. 7.
57) Loc. cit. sub. 2.
58) Loc. cit. sub. 10.
59) Loc. cit. sub. 33.
60) www.giustizia.it/giustizia/it/homepage.page
61) Garante nazionale dei diritti delle persone detenute o private della libertà personale. Relazione al Parlamento 2019. http://www.garantenazionaleprivatiliberta.it/gnpl/it/pub_rel_par.page.
62) Loc. cit. sub. 60.
63) Buffa, P. (2012). Il suicidio in carcere: la categorizzazione del rischio come trappola concettuale ed operativa, Rassegna penitenziaria e Criminologica, XV (1), 7- 118.
64) Buffa, P. (2015) Umanizzare il carcere. Roma: Laurus Robuffo.
65) Calderone, V., Manconi, L. (2011). Quando hanno aperto la cella, Milano: Il Saggiatore.
66) Miravalle, M., Torrente, G. (2016). La normalizzazione del suicidio nelle pratiche penitenziarie. Una ricerca sui fascicoli ispettivi dei Provveditorati dell’Amministrazione penitenziaria, Politica del Diritto, n. 1-2, pp. 217-258.
67) Franceschini, A. (2009). La medicina penitenziaria in Giusti G. (ed.) Trattato di Medicina Legale e Scienze Affini, Padova: CEDAM, vol. VIII, cap. CCLII.
68) Buffa, P. (2008). Alcune riflessioni sulle condotte autoaggressive poste in essere negli istituti penali italiani, Rassegna Penitenziaria e Criminologica, III, 7-64.
69) Austin, A. E., van den Heuvel, C., & Byard, R. W. (2014). Prison Suicides in South Australia: 1996-2010. J Forensic Sci, 59(5), 1260-1262.
70) Loc. cit. sub. 68.
71) Loc. cit. sub. 67.
72) Allegri, P.A., Torrente, G. (2018). Si torna a morire. Il preoccupante aumento di suicidi e morti in carcere, www.antigone.it.
73) Manconi, L., Torrente, G. (2015). La pena e i diritti. Il carcere nella crisi italiana. Roma: Carocci.
74) Bazzerla, G., Fanti, E., Ferrari, F., Grignani, M., Libianchi, S., Martino, G., Pagano, A.M., Scarpa, F., Silvestri, C. e Stasi, C. (2015). La salute dei detenuti in Italia: i risultati di uno studio multicentrico, Documenti dell’Agenzia Regionale di Sanità della Toscana.
75) Loc. cit. sub. 68.
76) Liebling, A. (1992). Suicides in Prison. London: Routledge.
77) Liebling, A., Ward, T. (1994). Deaths in Custody: International Perspectives, London: Whiting & Birch.
78) Vianello, F. (2012). Il carcere, sociologia del penitenziario. Roma: Carocci Editore.
79) Loc. Cit. sub. 63.
80) Loc. cit. sub. 63.
81) Loc. cit. sub. 17.
82) Klonsky E.D., May A.M., Saffer B.Y. (2015) Suicide, Suicide Attempts, and Suicidal Ideation, Annu. Rev. Clin. Psychol. 2016. 12:14.1-14.24.
83) Marzano L., Ciclitira K., Adler J.R. (2016) Non-suicidal self-harm amongst incarcerated men: a qualitative study. JCP, 6 (4). pp. 157-172.
84) Loc. cit. sub. 17.
85) Klonsky, ED, May, AM, Glenn, CR. (2013). The relationship between nonsuicidal self-injury and attempted suicide: converging evidence from four samples. J Abnorm Psychol. 122(1):231-237.
86) Loc. cit. sub. 47.
87) Hettiarachchi, L., Kinner, S., Tibble, H., & Borschmann, R. (2018). Self-Harm among Young People Detained in the Youth Justice System in Sri Lanka. Int J Environ Res Public Health, 15(2), 209.
88) Andover, M.S., Gibb, B.E. (2010). Non-suicidal self-injury, attempted suicide, and suicidal intent among psychiatric inpatients, Psychiatry Res, 178(1), 101-105.
89) Loc. cit. sub. 88.
90) Cerutti, R., Presaghi, F., Manca, M., & Gratz, K. L. (2012). Deliberate self‐harm behavior among Italian young adults: Correlations with clinical and nonclinical dimensions of personality. Am J Orthopsychiatry, 82(3), 298-308.
91) Giletta, M., Scholte, R. H., Engels, R. C., Ciairano, S., and Prinstein, M. J. (2012). Adolescent non-suicidal self-injury: a cross-national study of community samples from Italy, the Netherlands and the United States. J Psychiatr Res. 197,66-72.
92) Hilt, L. M., Cha, C. B., & Nolen-Hoeksema, S. (2008). Nonsuicidal self-injury in young adolescent girls: Moderators of the distress-function relationship. J Consult Clin Psychol, 76(1), 63-71.
93) Lloyd-Richardson, E. E., Perrine, N., Dierker, L., & Kelley, M. L. (2007). Characteristics and functions of non-suicidal self-injury in a community sample of adolescents. Psychol Med, 37(8), 1183-1192.
94) Plener, P. L., Libal, G., Keller, F., Fegert, J. M., and Muehlenkamp, J. J. (2009). An international comparison of non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI) and suicide attempts: Germany and the USA. Psychol. Med. 39, 1549-1558.
95) Whitlock, J.; Eckenrode, J.; Silverman, D. (2006). Self-injurious Behaviors in a College Population, Pediatrics 117 (6) 1939-1948.
96) Brausch, A.M. & Gutierrez, P.M. (2010). Differences in non-suicidal self-injury and suicide attempts in adolescents. J Youth Adolesc, 39, 233-242.
97) Kirchner, T., Ferrer, L., Forns, M., and Zanini, D. (2011). Self-harm behavior and suicidal ideation among high school students. Gender differences and relationship with coping strategies. Actas Esp. Psiquiatr. 39, 226-235.
98) Loc. cit. sub.
99) Loc. cit. sub. 91.
100) Sornberger, M. J., Heath, N. L., Toste, J. R., and McLouth, R. (2012). Nonsuicidal self-injury and gender: patterns of prevalence, methods, and locations among adolescents. Suicide Life Threat Behav. 42, 266-278.
101) Loc. cit. sub. 91.
102) Loc. cit. sub. 47.
103) Peebles, R., Wilson, J. L., & Lock, J. D. (2011). Self-injury in adolescents with eating disorders: correlates and provider bias. J Adolesc Health, 48(3), 310-313.
104) Loc. cit. sub. 103.
105) Sarno, I., Madeddu, F., & Gratz, K. L. (2010). Self-injury, psychiatric symptoms, and defense mechanisms: Findings in an Italian nonclinical sample. Eur Psychiatry, 25(3), 136-145.
106) Loc. Cit. sub. 90.
107) Klonsky, E.D. (2011). Non-suicidal self-injury in United States adults: prevalence, sociodemographics, topography and functions. Psychol Med, 41(09), 1981-1986.
108) Loc. cit. sub. 88.
109) Claes, L., Vandereycken, W. (2007). Self-injurious behavior: differential diagnosis and functional differentiation. Compr Psychiatry. 48(2):137-44. Epub 2007 Jan 2.
110) Kaess, M., Parzer, P., Mattern, M., Plener, P. L., Bifulco, A., Resch, F., et al. (2013). Adverse childhood experiences and their impact on frequency, severity, and the individual function of nonsuicidal self-injury in youth. Psychiatry Res. 206, 265-272.
111) Bresin, K. & Schoenleber, M. (2015). Gender differences in the prevalence of nonsuicidal self-injury: A meta-analysis. Clin Psychol Rev, 38:55-64.
112) Loc. cit. sub. 60.
113) Loc. cit. sub. 60.
114) Paulus, P. B., Dzindolet, M. T. (1993). Reactions of male and female inmates to prison confinement: Further evidence for a two-component model. Crim Justice Behav, 20, 149-166.
115) Snow, L. (2002). Prisoners’ motives for self-injury and attempted suicide. British Journal of Forensic Practice, 4, 18-29.
116) Klonsky, E. D., Oltmanns, T. F., & Turkheimer, E. (2003). Deliberate self-harm in a nonclinical population: prevalence and psychological correlates. Am J Psychiatry, 1501-1508.
117) Dixon-Gordon, K., Harrison, N., and Roesch, R. (2012). Non-Suicidal Self-Injury Within Offender Populations: A Systematic Review. Int J Forensic Ment Health, 33-50.
118) Loc. cit. sub. 117.
119) Loc. cit. sub. 74.
120) Loc. cit. sub. 117.
121) Kirchner, T., Forns, M., and Mohíano, S. (2008). Identifying the Risk of Deliberate Self-Harm Among Young Prisoners by Means of Coping Typologies. Suicide Life Threat Behav, 38(4), 442-448.
122) Sakelliadis, E. I., Papadodima, S. A., Sergentanis, T. N., Giotakos, O., & Spiliopoulou, C. A. (2010). Self-injurious behavior among Greek male prisoners: Prevalence and risk factors. Eur Psychiatry. 151-158.
123) Fotiadou, M, Livaditis, M, Manou, I, Kaniotou, E, and Xenitidis, K. (2006). Prevalence of mental disorders and deliberate self-harm in Greek male prisoners. Int J Law Psychiatry 29: 68-73.
124) Loc. cit. sub. 122.
125) Loc. cit. sub. 10.
126) Loc. cit. sub. 123.
127) Gray, N. S., Hill, C., McGleish, A., Timmons, D., MacCulloch, M. J., and Snowden, R. J. (2003). Prediction of violence and self-harm in mentally disordered offenders: A prospective study of the efficacy of HCR-20, PCL-R, and psychiatric symptomatology. J Consult Clin Psychol, 71(3), 443-451.
128) Loc. cit. sub. 17.
129) Loc. cit. sub. 67.
130) Fagan, T., Cox, J., Helfand, S., and Aufderheide, D. (2010). Self-Injurious Behavior in Correctional Settings. J Correct Health Care, 48-66.
131) Verdolini, N., Murru, A., Attademo, L., Garinell, R., Pacchiarotti, I., Del Mar Bonnin, C., Tortorella, A. (2017). The aggressor at the mirror: Psychiatric correlates of deliberate self-harm in male prison inmates. Eur Psychiatry, 153-160.
132) Loc. cit. sub. 10.
133) Loc. cit. sub. 25.
134) Loc. cit. sub. 10.
135) Loc. cit. sub. 33.
136) Loc. cit. sub. 33.
137) Loc. cit. sub. 33.
138) Loc. cit. sub. 61.
139) Loc. cit. sub 83.
140) Marzano L. (2010) Self-harm in prisons: dominant models and (mis)understandings in Adler J., Grey J.M (2010) Forensic Psychology: Concepts, debates and practice, New York, Willan Publishing, pp. 486-501.
141) Snow, L. (1997). A pilot study of self-injury amongst women prisoners. Issues in Criminological and Legal Psychology, 28, 50-59.
142) Pini, E., Riboldi, I., Cova, F., Capuzzi, E., Provenzi, M., Sergio, M. R., ..., Clerici, M. (2015). Valutazione e prevenzione del rischio auto/etero lesivo e suicidario in carcere: l’attività di un DSM (Risk assessment and prevention of self-harm, hetero-aggressiveness and suicide in prison: reports from a Department of Mental Health. Rivista Sperimentale di Freniatria, 147-161.
143) Bonazzi, G., Leonini, L., Rositi, F. e Barbagli, M. (2009). Congedarsi dal mondo. Il suicidio in Occidente e in Oriente, Rassegna Italiana di Sociologia, a. 1, n. 4 ottobre-dicembre.
144) Loc. cit. sub. 28.
145) Loc. cit. sub. 68.
146) Loc. cit. sub. 68.
147) Loc. cit. sub. 60.
1) Comitato Bioetico Nazionale. (2013). La salute dentro le mura, http://bioetica.governo.it/it/documenti/pareri-e-risposte/la-salute-dentro-le-mura/.
2) World Health Organization (2007). La prevenzione del suicidio nelle carceri, WHO Press, World Health Organization, Geneva.
3) Pini, E., Riboldi, I., Cova, F., Capuzzi, E., Provenzi, M., Sergio, M. R., Clerici, M. (2015). Risk assessment and prevention of self-harm, hetero-aggressiveness and suicide in prison: reports from a Depertment of Mental Health. Rivista Sperimentale di Freniatria, 147-161.
4) Manconi, L. (2002). Suicidi e atti di autolesionismo: i dati di una ricerca in Politica del diritto, XXXIII, 2, giugno 2002.
5) Ponti, G., Merzagorza Betsos, I. (2008). Compendio di criminologia, Milano: Raffaello Cortina Editori, pp 451-457.
6) Fazel, S, Benning, R, Danesh, J. (2005). Suicides in male prisoners in England and Wales, 1978–2003. Lancet 2005; 366 pp. 1301-1302.
7) Fazel, S, Benning, R. (2009). Suicides in female prisoners in England and Wales, 1978–2004. Br J Psychiatry, vol. 194, pp. 183-184.
8) Fazel, S, Grann, M, Kling, B, et al. (2011). Prison suicide in 12 countries: an ecological study of 861 suicides during 2003–2007. Soc Psychiatry Psychiatr Epidemiol, 46 pp. 191-195.
9) Fazel, S., Ramesh, T., Hawton, K. (2017). Suicide in prisons: an international study of prevalence and contributory factors, Lancet Psychiatry 4: 946-52.
10) Hawton, K., Linsell, L., Adeniji, T., Sariaslan, A., and Fazel, S. (2014). Self-harm in prisons in England and Wales: an epidemiological study of prevalence, risk factors, clustering, and subsequent suicide. The Lancet, 383(9923), 1147-1154.
11) Loc. cit. sub. 4.
12) Rabe, K. (2012). Prison structure, inmate mortality and suicide risk in Europe. Int J Law Psychiatry 2012; 35, pp. 222-230.
13) World Health Organization (2018). Monitoring health for the SDGs. Geneva: WHO. https://apps.who.int/iris/bitstream/handle/10665/272596/9789241565585-eng.pdf?ua=1.
14) Guarmit, B., Brousse, P., Lucarelli, A., Donutil, G., Cropet, C., Mosnier, E., ... Nacher, M. (2018). Descriptive epidemiology of suicide attempts and suicide in the remote villages of French Guiana. Soc Psychiatry Psychiatr Epidemiol.
15) Turecki, G., Brent, D.A. (2016). Suicide and suicidal behaviour, Lancet 387(10024): 1227-1239.
16) Icick, R., Vorspan, F., Karsinti, E., Ksouda, K., Lépine, J.-P., Brousse, G., Mouly, S., Belliver, F., Bloch, V. (2018). Gender-specific study of recurrent suicide attempts in outpatients with multiple substance use disorders. J Affect Disord, 241, 546-553.
17) American Psychiatric Association (2013) Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 5th Edition. Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Association.
18) Loc. cit. sub. 17.
19) Kiekens, G., Bruffaerts, R., Nock, M.K., Van de Ven, M., Witteman, C., Mortier, P., Demyttenaere, K., Claes, L. (2015) Non-suicidal self-injury among Dutch and Belgian adolescents: Personality, stress and coping. European Psychiatry 30(6):743-749.
20) Loc. Cit. sub. 10 hawton.
21) Gauthier, S., Reisch, T., Bartsch, C. (2015). Swiss prison suicides between 2000 and 2010: Can we develop new prevention strategies based on detailed knowledge of suicide methods? Crisis. 36, pp. 110-116.
22) Pluck, G. and Brooker, C. (2014), Epidemiological survey of suicide ideation and acts and other deliberate self‐harm among offenders in the community under supervision of the Probation Service in England and Wales, CBMH, 24, 358- 364.
23) Loughran M., Seewoonarain K. (2005) Characteristics of need and risk among women prisoners referred to inreach mental health services. The British Journal of Forensic Practice, 7, 12-21.
24) Mannion, A. (2009) Self-harm in a dangerous and severely personality disordered population. Journal of Forensic Psychiatry and Psychology, 20, 322-331.
25) Vollm, B. A., & Dolan, M. C. (2009). Self-harm among UK female prisoners: A cross-sectional study. J Forens Psychiatry Psychol, 741-751.
26) Loc. cit. sub. 10.
27) Loc. cit. sub. 13.
28) De Leo, D., Burgis, S., Bertolote, J, Kerkhof, A.D.M., and Bille-Brahe, U. (2004). Definitions of suicidal behavior, in De Leo, D., Bille-Brahe, U., Kerkhof, A.D.M, and Schmidtke, A. (ed.) Suicidal Behavior: Theories and research findings, pp. 17-39.
29) Gabbard, G.O. (2015). Psichiatria Psicodinamica, Milano, Raffaello Cortina Editore.
30) Klonsky, E.D., May, A.M. (2014). Differentiating Suicide Attempters from Suicide Ideators: A Critical Frontier for Suicidology Research, Suicide Life Threat Behav 44, 1, February 2014.
31) Silverman, M. M. (2009). In This Issue. Suicide Life Threat Behav, 39(1), iii–v.
32) Loc. cit. sub. 13.
33) ISTAT (2017) Giornata mondiale per la prevenzione del suicidio, https://www.istat.it/it/archivio/203353.
34) Grattagliano, I., Ostuni, A., Marrone, M., Cassano, A., Tafuri, S., Bianchi, F., Misceo, F., Miniello, M., & Catanesi, R. (2019). The wish ‘not to be’ Survey of suicide cases arriving at the Prosecutor’s Office of the Court in Bari in the years 2014-2016. Clin Ter. 1(170), e16 - e26.
35) Loc. cit. sub. 15.
36) Loc. cit. sub. 15.
37) Nock, M., Borges, G., Bromet, E.J., Cha, C.B., Kessler, R.C., Lee, S. (2008). Suicide and Suicidal Behavior, Epidemiologic Reviews, 30(1), pp. 133-154.
38) Loc. cit. sub. 34.
39) Balestrieri, M., Pompili, M. (2017). Il suicidio. in Siracusano A. (ed.) Manuale di Psichiatria, Roma: Il Pensiero Scientifico, pp. 711-723.
40) Pompili, M., Vichi, M., Masocco, M., Vanacore, N., Innamorati, M., Serafini, G., ... Tatarelli, R. (2010). Il suicidio in Italia. Aspetti epidemiologici e socio-demografici.
41) Loc. cit. sub. 13.
42) Klonsky, E.D., May, A.M., Saffer B.Y. (2016). Suicide, Suicide Attempts, and Suicidal Ideation, Annu. Rev. Clin. Psychol. 2016.
43) Bernal, M., Haro, J.M., Bernert, S., Brugha, T., de Graaf, R., Bruffaerts, R., Lépine, J.P., de Girolamo, G., Vilagut, G., Gasquet, I., Torres, J.V., Kovess, V., Heider, D., Neeleman, J., Kessler, R., Alonso, J., The ESEMED/MHEDEA Investigators (2007). Risk factors for suicidality in Europe: Results from the ESEMED study. J Affect Disord, 101(1-3), 27-34.
44) Loc. Cit. sub. 16.
45) Loc. cit. sub. 16.
46) Gratz, K.L. & Tull, M.T. Cogn Ther Res (2010) The Relationship Between Emotion Dysregulation and Deliberate Self-Harm Among Inpatients with Substance Use Disorders. Cognitive Therapy and Research. 34(6):544-553.
47) Asarnow, J. R., Porta, G., Spirito, A., Emslie, G., Clarke, G., Wagner, K. D., and Brent, D. A. (2011). Suicide Attempts and Nonsuicidal Self-Injury in the Treatment of Resistant Depression in Adolescents: Findings from the TORDIA Study. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry, 10(3), 380-388.
48) Hauser, M., Galling, B., Correll, C.U. (2013). Suicidal ideation and suicide attempts in children and adolescents with bipolar disorder: a systematic review of prevalence and incidence rates, correlates, and targeted interventions. Bipolar Disord. 15(5):507-23.
49) Tull, M.T., Weiss, N.H., McDermott, M.J. (2010) Non‐Suicidal Self‐Injury and Eating Pathology in High School Students. American Journal of Orthopsychiatry. 79(1):83-92.
50) Claes, L., Luyckx, K., Bijttebier, P., Turner, B., Ghandi, A., Smets, J., Norre, J., Van Assche, L., Verheyen, E., Goris, Y., Hoksbergen, I., Schoevaerts, K. (2014). Non-Suicidal Self-Injury in Patients with Eating Disorder: Associations with Identity Formation Above and Beyond Anxiety and Depression. European Eating Disorders Review, 23(2), 119-125.
51) Kleindienst, N., Bohus, M., Ludäscher, P., Limberger, M. F., Kuenkele, K., Ebner-Priemer, U. W., Chapman A.L., Reicherzer. M., Stieglitz, R., Schmahl, C. (2008). Motives for Nonsuicidal Self-Injury Among Women with Borderline Personality Disorder. The Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, 196(3):230-236.
52) Loc. cit. sub. 40 nock 2008.
53) Loc. Cit. sub. 8.
54) Loc. Cit. sub. 6.
55) Loc. Cit. sub. 7.
56) Loc. cit. sub. 7.
57) Loc. cit. sub. 2.
58) Loc. cit. sub. 10.
59) Loc. cit. sub. 33.
60) www.giustizia.it/giustizia/it/homepage.page
61) Garante nazionale dei diritti delle persone detenute o private della libertà personale. Relazione al Parlamento 2019. http://www.garantenazionaleprivatiliberta.it/gnpl/it/pub_rel_par.page.
62) Loc. cit. sub. 60.
63) Buffa, P. (2012). Il suicidio in carcere: la categorizzazione del rischio come trappola concettuale ed operativa, Rassegna penitenziaria e Criminologica, XV (1), 7- 118.
64) Buffa, P. (2015) Umanizzare il carcere. Roma: Laurus Robuffo.
65) Calderone, V., Manconi, L. (2011). Quando hanno aperto la cella, Milano: Il Saggiatore.
66) Miravalle, M., Torrente, G. (2016). La normalizzazione del suicidio nelle pratiche penitenziarie. Una ricerca sui fascicoli ispettivi dei Provveditorati dell’Amministrazione penitenziaria, Politica del Diritto, n. 1-2, pp. 217-258.
67) Franceschini, A. (2009). La medicina penitenziaria in Giusti G. (ed.) Trattato di Medicina Legale e Scienze Affini, Padova: CEDAM, vol. VIII, cap. CCLII.
68) Buffa, P. (2008). Alcune riflessioni sulle condotte autoaggressive poste in essere negli istituti penali italiani, Rassegna Penitenziaria e Criminologica, III, 7-64.
69) Austin, A. E., van den Heuvel, C., & Byard, R. W. (2014). Prison Suicides in South Australia: 1996-2010. J Forensic Sci, 59(5), 1260-1262.
70) Loc. cit. sub. 68.
71) Loc. cit. sub. 67.
72) Allegri, P.A., Torrente, G. (2018). Si torna a morire. Il preoccupante aumento di suicidi e morti in carcere, www.antigone.it.
73) Manconi, L., Torrente, G. (2015). La pena e i diritti. Il carcere nella crisi italiana. Roma: Carocci.
74) Bazzerla, G., Fanti, E., Ferrari, F., Grignani, M., Libianchi, S., Martino, G., Pagano, A.M., Scarpa, F., Silvestri, C. e Stasi, C. (2015). La salute dei detenuti in Italia: i risultati di uno studio multicentrico, Documenti dell’Agenzia Regionale di Sanità della Toscana.
75) Loc. cit. sub. 68.
76) Liebling, A. (1992). Suicides in Prison. London: Routledge.
77) Liebling, A., Ward, T. (1994). Deaths in Custody: International Perspectives, London: Whiting & Birch.
78) Vianello, F. (2012). Il carcere, sociologia del penitenziario. Roma: Carocci Editore.
79) Loc. Cit. sub. 63.
80) Loc. cit. sub. 63.
81) Loc. cit. sub. 17.
82) Klonsky E.D., May A.M., Saffer B.Y. (2015) Suicide, Suicide Attempts, and Suicidal Ideation, Annu. Rev. Clin. Psychol. 2016. 12:14.1-14.24.
83) Marzano L., Ciclitira K., Adler J.R. (2016) Non-suicidal self-harm amongst incarcerated men: a qualitative study. JCP, 6 (4). pp. 157-172.
84) Loc. cit. sub. 17.
85) Klonsky, ED, May, AM, Glenn, CR. (2013). The relationship between nonsuicidal self-injury and attempted suicide: converging evidence from four samples. J Abnorm Psychol. 122(1):231-237.
86) Loc. cit. sub. 47.
87) Hettiarachchi, L., Kinner, S., Tibble, H., & Borschmann, R. (2018). Self-Harm among Young People Detained in the Youth Justice System in Sri Lanka. Int J Environ Res Public Health, 15(2), 209.
88) Andover, M.S., Gibb, B.E. (2010). Non-suicidal self-injury, attempted suicide, and suicidal intent among psychiatric inpatients, Psychiatry Res, 178(1), 101-105.
89) Loc. cit. sub. 88.
90) Cerutti, R., Presaghi, F., Manca, M., & Gratz, K. L. (2012). Deliberate self‐harm behavior among Italian young adults: Correlations with clinical and nonclinical dimensions of personality. Am J Orthopsychiatry, 82(3), 298-308.
91) Giletta, M., Scholte, R. H., Engels, R. C., Ciairano, S., and Prinstein, M. J. (2012). Adolescent non-suicidal self-injury: a cross-national study of community samples from Italy, the Netherlands and the United States. J Psychiatr Res. 197,66-72.
92) Hilt, L. M., Cha, C. B., & Nolen-Hoeksema, S. (2008). Nonsuicidal self-injury in young adolescent girls: Moderators of the distress-function relationship. J Consult Clin Psychol, 76(1), 63-71.
93) Lloyd-Richardson, E. E., Perrine, N., Dierker, L., & Kelley, M. L. (2007). Characteristics and functions of non-suicidal self-injury in a community sample of adolescents. Psychol Med, 37(8), 1183-1192.
94) Plener, P. L., Libal, G., Keller, F., Fegert, J. M., and Muehlenkamp, J. J. (2009). An international comparison of non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI) and suicide attempts: Germany and the USA. Psychol. Med. 39, 1549-1558.
95) Whitlock, J.; Eckenrode, J.; Silverman, D. (2006). Self-injurious Behaviors in a College Population, Pediatrics 117 (6) 1939-1948.
96) Brausch, A.M. & Gutierrez, P.M. (2010). Differences in non-suicidal self-injury and suicide attempts in adolescents. J Youth Adolesc, 39, 233-242.
97) Kirchner, T., Ferrer, L., Forns, M., and Zanini, D. (2011). Self-harm behavior and suicidal ideation among high school students. Gender differences and relationship with coping strategies. Actas Esp. Psiquiatr. 39, 226-235.
98) Loc. cit. sub.
99) Loc. cit. sub. 91.
100) Sornberger, M. J., Heath, N. L., Toste, J. R., and McLouth, R. (2012). Nonsuicidal self-injury and gender: patterns of prevalence, methods, and locations among adolescents. Suicide Life Threat Behav. 42, 266-278.
101) Loc. cit. sub. 91.
102) Loc. cit. sub. 47.
103) Peebles, R., Wilson, J. L., & Lock, J. D. (2011). Self-injury in adolescents with eating disorders: correlates and provider bias. J Adolesc Health, 48(3), 310-313.
104) Loc. cit. sub. 103.
105) Sarno, I., Madeddu, F., & Gratz, K. L. (2010). Self-injury, psychiatric symptoms, and defense mechanisms: Findings in an Italian nonclinical sample. Eur Psychiatry, 25(3), 136-145.
106) Loc. Cit. sub. 90.
107) Klonsky, E.D. (2011). Non-suicidal self-injury in United States adults: prevalence, sociodemographics, topography and functions. Psychol Med, 41(09), 1981-1986.
108) Loc. cit. sub. 88.
109) Claes, L., Vandereycken, W. (2007). Self-injurious behavior: differential diagnosis and functional differentiation. Compr Psychiatry. 48(2):137-44. Epub 2007 Jan 2.
110) Kaess, M., Parzer, P., Mattern, M., Plener, P. L., Bifulco, A., Resch, F., et al. (2013). Adverse childhood experiences and their impact on frequency, severity, and the individual function of nonsuicidal self-injury in youth. Psychiatry Res. 206, 265-272.
111) Bresin, K. & Schoenleber, M. (2015). Gender differences in the prevalence of nonsuicidal self-injury: A meta-analysis. Clin Psychol Rev, 38:55-64.
112) Loc. cit. sub. 60.
113) Loc. cit. sub. 60.
114) Paulus, P. B., Dzindolet, M. T. (1993). Reactions of male and female inmates to prison confinement: Further evidence for a two-component model. Crim Justice Behav, 20, 149-166.
115) Snow, L. (2002). Prisoners’ motives for self-injury and attempted suicide. British Journal of Forensic Practice, 4, 18-29.
116) Klonsky, E. D., Oltmanns, T. F., & Turkheimer, E. (2003). Deliberate self-harm in a nonclinical population: prevalence and psychological correlates. Am J Psychiatry, 1501-1508.
117) Dixon-Gordon, K., Harrison, N., and Roesch, R. (2012). Non-Suicidal Self-Injury Within Offender Populations: A Systematic Review. Int J Forensic Ment Health, 33-50.
118) Loc. cit. sub. 117.
119) Loc. cit. sub. 74.
120) Loc. cit. sub. 117.
121) Kirchner, T., Forns, M., and Mohíano, S. (2008). Identifying the Risk of Deliberate Self-Harm Among Young Prisoners by Means of Coping Typologies. Suicide Life Threat Behav, 38(4), 442-448.
122) Sakelliadis, E. I., Papadodima, S. A., Sergentanis, T. N., Giotakos, O., & Spiliopoulou, C. A. (2010). Self-injurious behavior among Greek male prisoners: Prevalence and risk factors. Eur Psychiatry. 151-158.
123) Fotiadou, M, Livaditis, M, Manou, I, Kaniotou, E, and Xenitidis, K. (2006). Prevalence of mental disorders and deliberate self-harm in Greek male prisoners. Int J Law Psychiatry 29: 68-73.
124) Loc. cit. sub. 122.
125) Loc. cit. sub. 10.
126) Loc. cit. sub. 123.
127) Gray, N. S., Hill, C., McGleish, A., Timmons, D., MacCulloch, M. J., and Snowden, R. J. (2003). Prediction of violence and self-harm in mentally disordered offenders: A prospective study of the efficacy of HCR-20, PCL-R, and psychiatric symptomatology. J Consult Clin Psychol, 71(3), 443-451.
128) Loc. cit. sub. 17.
129) Loc. cit. sub. 67.
130) Fagan, T., Cox, J., Helfand, S., and Aufderheide, D. (2010). Self-Injurious Behavior in Correctional Settings. J Correct Health Care, 48-66.
131) Verdolini, N., Murru, A., Attademo, L., Garinell, R., Pacchiarotti, I., Del Mar Bonnin, C., Tortorella, A. (2017). The aggressor at the mirror: Psychiatric correlates of deliberate self-harm in male prison inmates. Eur Psychiatry, 153-160.
132) Loc. cit. sub. 10.
133) Loc. cit. sub. 25.
134) Loc. cit. sub. 10.
135) Loc. cit. sub. 33.
136) Loc. cit. sub. 33.
137) Loc. cit. sub. 33.
138) Loc. cit. sub. 61.
139) Loc. cit. sub 83.
140) Marzano L. (2010) Self-harm in prisons: dominant models and (mis)understandings in Adler J., Grey J.M (2010) Forensic Psychology: Concepts, debates and practice, New York, Willan Publishing, pp. 486-501.
141) Snow, L. (1997). A pilot study of self-injury amongst women prisoners. Issues in Criminological and Legal Psychology, 28, 50-59.
142) Pini, E., Riboldi, I., Cova, F., Capuzzi, E., Provenzi, M., Sergio, M. R., ..., Clerici, M. (2015). Valutazione e prevenzione del rischio auto/etero lesivo e suicidario in carcere: l’attività di un DSM (Risk assessment and prevention of self-harm, hetero-aggressiveness and suicide in prison: reports from a Department of Mental Health. Rivista Sperimentale di Freniatria, 147-161.
143) Bonazzi, G., Leonini, L., Rositi, F. e Barbagli, M. (2009). Congedarsi dal mondo. Il suicidio in Occidente e in Oriente, Rassegna Italiana di Sociologia, a. 1, n. 4 ottobre-dicembre.
144) Loc. cit. sub. 28.
145) Loc. cit. sub. 68.
146) Loc. cit. sub. 68.
147) Loc. cit. sub. 60.
please wait

Caricamento in corso...